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Works Cited

The items in this section refer to the scholarly references cited in previous sections.

 

Acorn, Milton. Letter to Fred Cogswell. 16 July 1970. Fiddlehead/Cogswell papers. UA RG83. Box 18 MS 2.6 98. University of New Brunswick Libraries. Archives and Special Collections, Fredericton. Used with Permission of Kathleen Forsythe.

Armstrong, Tammy. “An Atlantic Canadian Menagerie: Four Contemporary Atlantic Canadian Poets and the Animal Encounter.” Unpublished diss. University of New Brunswick, Fredericton. 2012.

Ayre, John. Northrop Frye: A Biography. Toronto: Random House, 1989.

Bogdan, Deanne. “Moncton, Mentors, and Memories: An Interview with Northrop Frye.” Studies in Canadian Literature/Études en littérature canadienne11.2 (Fall 1986): 246-69.

Bowering, George. “Poetry as Recreation.” Rev. of Five New Brunswick Poets. Canadian Forum 42 January 1963: 237-8.

Campbell, Wanda. “‘Every Sea-Surrounded Hour’: The Margin in Maritime Poetry.” Studies in Canadian Literature/Études en littérature canadienne 33.2 (2008): 151-170.

Carman, Bliss. “A Vagabond Song.” Stubborn Strength: A New Brunswick Anthology. Ed. Michael O. Nowlan. Don Mills, ON: Academic Press Canada, 1983. 23-4.

Cogswell, Donald. J. Descendants of John Cogswell. Sebring, FL: Family Line Publications, 1998.

Cogswell, Fred. “A Ballad of Orchard Evening.” A Long Apprenticeship: The Collected Poems of Fred Cogswell. Fredericton: Fiddlehead Poetry Books, 1980. 20-21.

---. “A Bare Road and a Lonely.” When the Right Light Shines. Ottawa: Borealis, 1992. 31.

---. “A Defence of Amateurism.” A Long Apprenticeship: The Collected Poems of Fred Cogswell. Fredericton: Fiddlehead Poetry Books, 1980. 132-3.

---. “A Mental Journey.” The Trouble with Light. Nepean: Borealis, 1996. 59-60.

---. “A Speculation.” The Trouble with Light. Nepean: Borealis, 1996. 44.

---. “After.” A Long Apprenticeship: The Collected Poems of Fred Cogswell. Fredericton: Fiddlehead Poetry Books, 1980. 48.

---. “An Atonement.” The Best Notes Merge. Ottawa: Borealis, 1988. 7-8.

---. “An Epigram.” The Trouble With Light. Nepean, ON: Borealis, 1996. 73.

---. “Antaeus.” The Kindness of Stars. Ottawa: Borealis, 2004. 59.

---. “Apollo and Dionysus.” The Kindness of Stars. Ottawa: Borealis, 2004. 57.

---. “Art” [after Theophile Gautier]. In My Own Growing. Ottawa: Borealis, 1993. 38-40.

---. “Art.” The House Without a Door. Fredericton: Fiddlehead Poetry Books, 1973. 32.

---. “Augustine.” Later in Chicago. Ottawa: Borealis, 2000. 61.

---. “Ballade of Light and Heat.” With Vision Added. Nepean: Borealis, 2000. 106-07.

---. “Ballade of Opportunity.” A Double Question. Nepean: Borealis, 1999. 75-6.

---. “The Beach at Noon.” Meditations: 50 Sestinas. Charlottetown: Ragweed, 1986. 9.

---. “Behind the Veil the Dictionary.” Deeper Than Mind. Ottawa: Borealis, 2001. 8-9.

---. “Between the Science-Sun and the Moon’s Green-Cheese.” Folds. Nepean: Borealis, 1997. 44-5.

---. “Biography.” The Kindness of Stars. Ottawa: Borealis, 2004. 52.

---. “The Black Swan.” Folds. Nepean: Borealis, 1997. 46-7.

---. “Body, Mind, and Soul.” A Double Question. Nepean: Borealis, 1999. 77-8.

---. “Choosing a Printer.” The Fiddlehead [Fiddlehead Gold: 50 Years of The Fiddlehead Magazine] 185 (1995): 35-36.

---. “Diana.” A Long Apprenticeship: The Collected Poems of Fred Cogswell. Fredericton: Fiddlehead Poetry Books, 1980. 37.

---. “The Debt I Owe the Books.”A Long Apprenticeship: The Collected Poems of Fred Cogswell. Fredericton: Fiddlehead Poetry Books, 1980. 91-3.

---. “The Development of Writing.” Arts in New Brunswick. Ed. R.A. Tweedie, et al. Fredericton: Brunswick Press, 1967. 19-31.

---. “Earth and Sky: A Marriage.” Watching an Eagle. Ottawa: Borealis, 1991. 48.

---. “Earth, I Have Always Made My Prayer.” With Vision Added. Nepean: Borealis, 2000. 7-8.

---. “Energism.” In Praise of Old Music. Ottawa: Borealis, 1992. 37.

---. “Epigram.” Watching an Eagle. Ottawa: Borealis, 1991. 26.

---. “Euphony.” The Kindness of Stars. Ottawa: Borealis, 2004. 48-9.

---. “The Ex-Poetry Editor Watches the Birds at the Feeder.” In Praise of Old Music. Ottawa: Borealis, 1992. 71-2.

---. “For an Artist.”A Long Apprenticeship: The Collected Poems of Fred Cogswell. Fredericton: Fiddlehead Poetry Books, 1980. 217.

---. “For Any Life to Have its Fullest Fling.” Later in Chicago. Ottawa: Borealis, 2000. 18-9.

---. “For Hugh Wiley Peppers Lewis.” A Double Question. Nepean: Borealis, 1999. 85.

---. “Form.” The Trouble with Light. Nepean: Borealis, 1996. 17.

---. “Gaea’s World.” Folds. Nepean: Borealis, 1997. 81.

---. “The Heart of Form.” Black and White Tapestry. Ottawa: Borealis, 1989. 77-8.

---. “How Can I Say...?” Later in Chicago. Ottawa: Borealis, 2000. 43.

---. “How Far is Far?” Ghosts. Ottawa: Borealis, 2002. 88.

---. “How We Live.” Black and White Tapestry. Ottawa: Borealis, 1989. 37-8.

---. “I Found The Hope: The Voice of Dog.” Later in Chicago. Ottawa: Borealis, 2003. 34-35.

---. “I’ve Written Poems.” Later in Chicago. Ottawa: Borealis, 2003. 60.

---. “In a World Ruled . . .” The Kindness of Stars. Ottawa: Borealis, 2004. 70.

---. “In the Great World of Being.” Later in Chicago. Ottawa: Borealis, 2003. 24-5.

---. “In My Young Days.” The Kindness of Stars. Ottawa: Borealis, 2004. 52.

---. “In This World...” In My Own Growing. Ottawa: Borealis, 1993. 50.

---. “Inside the Chapel: Villa Madonna.” The Best Notes Merge. Ottawa: Borealis, 1988. 51-56.

---. “It Began In 1935.” Ghosts. Ottawa: Borealis, 2002. 41-42.

---. “Ironic Preview: 21st Century.” Deeper Than Mind. Ottawa: Borealis, 2001. 68-9.

---. “Joy.” Meditations: 50 Sestinas. Charlottetown: Ragweed, 1986. 26.

---. Letter to Arthur Bourinot. 06 January 1955. Fiddlehead/Cogswell Fonds. UA RG83. MS 1. Correspondence # 1.740(b). University of New Brunswick Libraries. Archives and Special Collections, Fredericton. Used with Permission of Kathleen Forsythe.

---. Letter to Phyllis Webb. 19 October 1955. Fiddlehead/Cogswell Fonds. UA RG83. MS 1. Correspondence # 1.1473. University of New Brunswick Libraries. Archives and Special Collections, Fredericton. Used with Permission of Kathleen Forsythe.

---. Letter to Elizabeth Brewster. 26 November 1955. Fiddlehead/Cogswell Fonds. UA RG83. MS 1. Correspondence # 1.1559. University of New Brunswick Libraries. Archives and Special Collections, Fredericton. Used with Permission of Kathleen Forsythe.

---. Letter to Lawrence Holmes. 10 December 1955. Fiddlehead/Cogswell Fonds. UA RG83. MS 1. Correspondence # 1.1600. University of New Brunswick Libraries. Archives and Special Collections, Fredericton. Used with Permission of Kathleen Forsythe.

---. Letter to Dorothy Livesay. 25 July 1957. Fiddlehead/Cogswell Fonds. UA RG83. MS 1. Correspondence # 1.2431. University of New Brunswick Libraries. Archives and Special Collections, Fredericton. Used with Permission of Kathleen Forsythe.

---. Letter to Richard Ashman. 30 September 1957. Fiddlehead/Cogswell Fonds. UA RG83. MS 1. Correspondence # 1.2782. University of New Brunswick Libraries. Archives and Special Collections, Fredericton. Used with Permission of Kathleen Forsythe.

---. Letter to Alden Nowlan. 08 January 1958. Fiddlehead/Cogswell Fonds. UA RG83. MS 6; box 20. Correspondence 28+ (1955-60). University of New Brunswick Libraries. Archives and Special Collections, Fredericton. Used with Permission of Kathleen Forsythe.

---. Letter to Alan Reidpath. 09 January 1958. Fiddlehead/Cogswell Fonds. UA RG83. MS 1. Correspondence # 1.3116. University of New Brunswick Libraries. Archives and Special Collections, Fredericton. Used with Permission of Kathleen Forsythe.

---. Letter to John [Robert] Colombo. 23 February 1958. Fiddlehead/Cogswell Fonds. UA RG83. MS 1. Correspondence # 1.3228. University of New Brunswick Libraries. Archives and Special Collections, Fredericton. Used with Permission of Kathleen Forsythe.

---. Letter to Miss [Marleen] Hayes. 23 February 1958. Fiddlehead/Cogswell Fonds. UA RG83. MS 1. Correspondence # 1.3241. University of New Brunswick Libraries. Archives and Special Collections, Fredericton. Used with Permission of Kathleen Forsythe.

---. Letter to Hilmur Saffel. 25 May 1958. Fiddlehead/Cogswell Fonds. UA RG83. MS 1. Correspondence # 1.3509. University of New Brunswick Libraries. Archives and Special Collections, Fredericton. Used with Permission of Kathleen Forsythe.

---. Letter to Robert L. McDougall. 16 June 1958. Fiddlehead/Cogswell Fonds. UA RG83. MS 1. Correspondence # 1.3532(b). University of New Brunswick Libraries. Archives and Special Collections, Fredericton. Used with Permission of Kathleen Forsythe.

---. Letter to Gil Orlovitz. 23 February 1959. Fiddlehead/Cogswell Fonds. UA RG83. MS 1. Correspondence # 1.4384. University of New Brunswick Libraries. Archives and Special Collections, Fredericton. Used with Permission of Kathleen Forsythe.

---. Letter to Richard Hatfield. 30 December 1970. Fiddlehead/Cogswell Fonds. UA RG83. MS 2; box 18. Correspondence # 941. University of New Brunswick Libraries. Archives and Special Collections, Fredericton. Used with Permission of Kathleen Forsythe.

---. “Life Is.” The Kindness of Stars. Ottawa: Borealis, 2004. 65.

---. “The Life That’s Left... .” With Vision Added. Nepean: Borealis, 2000. 52-3.

---. “Lines for a Last Judgement.” Deeper Than Mind. Ottawa: Borealis, 2001. 25.

---. “Loneliness.” Black and White Tapestry. Ottawa: Borealis, 1989. 2.

---. “Lovers Beneath the Rain.” Dried Flowers. Ottawa: Borealis, 2002. 47.

---. “The Masters.” A Double Question. Nepean: Borealis, 1999. 16.

---. “Mayfly Ballade.” A Double Question. Nepean: Borealis, 1999. 21-22.

---. “Memory.” The Kindness of Stars. Ottawa: Borealis, 2004. 22-23.

---. “Mind: Con and Pro.” A Double Question. Nepean: Borealis, 1999. 86-7.

---. “Modern Acadian Poetry.” Canadian Literature 68/69 (Spring 1976): 62-65.

---. “More Than Anything... .” A Double Question. Nepean: Borealis, 1999. 33-34.

---. “New Brunswick.” The Stunted Strong. Fredericton: Fiddlehead Poetry Books, 1954. 16.

---. “October.” Dried Flowers. Ottawa: Borealis, 2002. 39-40.

---. “Ode to Fredericton.” A Long Apprenticeship: The Collected Poems of Fred Cogswell. Fredericton: Fiddlehead Poetry Books, 1980. 35.

---. “On the Stage of World Unity.” The Kindness of Stars. Ottawa: Borealis, 2004. 46-7.

---. “Poem for Gail.” The Best Notes Merge. Ottawa: Borealis, 1988. 11-12.

---. “The Poetry of Energy.” Later in Chicago. Ottawa: Borealis, 2003. 74.

---. “Reality.” In My Own Growing. Ottawa: Borealis, 1993. 9.

---. “Retirement.” With Vision Added. Nepean: Borealis, 2000. 98-99.

---. “Sarcoma.” In Praise of Old Music. Ottawa: Borealis, 1992. 27-8.

---. “Self-Advice.” Folds. Nepean: Borealis, 1997. 58.

---. “Since Any Life.” With Vision Added. Nepean: Borealis, 2000. 109.

---. “The Singing Fool.” Deeper Than Mind. Ottawa: Borealis, 2001. 92.

---. “Snob.” Dried Flowers. Ottawa: Borealis, 2002. 46.

---. “Three Legs.” A Double Question. Nepean: Borealis, 1999. 28-32.

---. “There Is So Much... .” Meditations: 50 Sestinas. Charlottetown: Ragweed, 1986. 42.

---. “This Poem Aching to be Born... .” Deeper Than Mind. Ottawa: Borealis, 2001. 44-45.

---. “Three Legs.” A Double Question. Nepean: Borealis, 1999. 28-32.

---. “To A Would-Be Writer.” With Vision Added. Nepean: Borealis, 2000. 43-4.

---. “Tripartite Melody.” As I See It. Borealis: Ottawa, 1994. 14.

---. “Wasson’s Bluff.” A Double Question. Nepean: Borealis, 1999. 8-15.

---. “What Can?"In My Own Growing. Ottawa: Borealis, 1993. 43.

---. “When I Visit.” Dried Flowers. Ottawa: Borealis, 2002. 14-5.

---. “With No Fixed Truths.” In My Own Growing. Ottawa: Borealis, 1993. 2.

---. “The Work Ethic.” Later in Chicago. Ottawa: Borealis, 2003. 64.

---. “Zen.” Pearls. Charlottetown, PEI: Ragweed Press, 1983. 24.

---. “Zen: The Epicure.” Meditations: 50 Sestinas. Charlottetown: Ragweed, 1986. 56.

Cogswell, Fred. Interviews with author. April, May 2002.

Cormier, C. "Gilbert A. Girouard (1846-1885). Un brillant début de carrière...." Société historique acadienne : Les Cahiers 12.3 (September 1981): 94-109.

D’Alfonso, Antonio, ed. Preface. Fred Cogswell: Selected Poems. Montreal: Guernica, 1983. 7-8.

Davies, Gwendolyn. “Fred Cogswell.” Dictionary of Literary Biography. Vol. 60. Canadian Writers Since 1960. Second ser. Ed. W.H. New. Detroit: Gale, 1987. 33-41.

Dudek, Louis. “Two Ancients Among the Moderns.” Rev. of Decent From Eden, by Fred Cogswell. Canadian Literature 2 (Autumn 1959): 77-9.

Forbes, E.R. “In Search of a Post-Confederation Maritime Historiography, 1900-1967.” Challenging the Regional Stereotype: Essays on the 20th Century Maritimes. Fredericton: Acadiensis, 1989. 48-66.

Forsythe, Kathleen, ed. The Vision of Fred: Friend of Poets/Ami des Poètes. Ottawa: Borealis, 2004.

---. [Kathleen Cogswell]. Interview with author. June 2010.

Galloway, David. “SCL Interviews: Fred Cogswell.” Studies in Canadian Literature/Études en littérature canadienne10.1-2 (1985): 208-225.

Gibbs, Robert. “Fred’s Overcoat.” Ellipse. Ed. Jo-Anne Elder. 68 (Autumn 2002): 162-4.

Hatt, Blaine E. “Fred Cogswell: A Well-Placed Candle.” The Atlantic Advocate 81.4 (December 1990): 38-40.

Hesiod. The Works and Days, Theogony, The Shield of Herakles. Trans. Richard Lattimore. Ann Arbor, Mich.: U of Michigan P, 1962.

Jameson, E.O. The Cogswells in America. Boston: A Mudge & Son, 1884.

Levenson, Christopher. Rev. of Dried Flowers and Ghosts, by Fred Cogswell. Canadian Literature 186 (Autumn 2005): 124-26.

Lewey, Laurel. Unpublished essay. “A History of the CCF in New Brunswick: 1933-1952.”

Lewis, Wyndham. Blasting and Bombardiering: An Autobiography (1914-1926). London: Calder and Boyars, 1937.

Lippit, Akira Mizuta. Electric Animals: Toward a Rhetoric of Wildlife. Minnesota: U of Minnesota P, 2000.

Lucas, Alec. “Cogswell Reviewed.” Rev. of Lost Dimension, by Fred Cogswell. The Fiddlehead 47 (Winter 1961): 53-4.

Mandel, Eli. Rev. of Descent from Eden, by Fred Cogswell. Tamarack Review 13 (Autumn 1959): 124-29.

McKay, Don. “Afterword.” The Fiddlehead [Fiddlehead Gold: 50 Years of The Fiddlehead Magazine] 185 (1995): 233-38.

McKay, Ian. Rebels, Reds, Radicals: Rethinking Canada’s Left History. Toronto: Between the Lines, 2005.

Moore, Andrew. “The Fiddlehead.” The New Brunswick Literary Encyclopedia. Ed. Tony Tremblay. Fredericton: New Brunswick Studies Centre, 2011. http://w3.stu.ca/stu/sites/nble/f/fiddlehead.html

Mullen, Vernon. “University of New Brunswick.” Them Lions Will Eat Them Up. Richmond, ON: Voyager Publishing, 1999. 27-42.

Nowlan, Alden. Letter to Fred Cogswell. 23 January 1959. Fiddlehead/Cogswell papers. UA RG83. Box 20 MS 6 59+ (1955-60). University of New Brunswick Libraries. Archives and Special Collections, Fredericton. Used with Permission of Kathleen Forsythe.

---. “Something to Write About.” Canadian Literature 68/69 (Spring/Summer 1976): 7-12.

---. “Stop Crying, You Anglophone Babies!” The Telegraph-Journal 5 August 1978: 7.

Rawlyk, G. A. Champions of Truth: Fundamentalism, Modernism, and the Maritime Baptists. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s UP, 1990.

Pound, Ezra. “A Retrospect.” Literary Essays of Ezra Pound. Ed. T.S. Eliot. New York: New Directions, 1968. 3-14.

Provincial Archives of New Brunswick. “Knights of the Ku Klux Klan Circular, No. 888” [1935]. MC1950. See also “Ku Klux Klan of Kanada in New Brunswick Records” [1925-30]. MC2604. PANB, Fredericton.

Rich, Adrienne. What Is Found There: Notebooks on Poetry and Politics. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1993.

Toner, Patrick. If I Could Turn and Meet Myself: The Life of Alden Nowlan. Fredericton: Goose Lane, 2000.

Trueman, A.W. “Foreward.” The Fiddlehead 18 (1953): 2.

Woodcock, George. "Poetry." Literary History of Canada: Canadian Literature in English. Vol. 3. 2nd edition. Gen. Ed. Carl F. Klinck. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1976. 284-317.

Yeats, W.B. “Sailing to Byzantium.” 20th Century Poetry and Poetics. Ed. Gary Geddes. Toronto: Oxford UP, 1969. 10.